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Electrotactile stimulation is the process of using a small stimulation electrode to pass a small electric current through the skin, producing controlled, localized touch sensations. This generates an electric field in subcutaneous tissue, which directly excites the afferent nerve fibers (those that direct impulses toward the central nervous system) responsible for normal, mechanical touch sensations. The stimulation is perceived as tingling, pressure, vibration or a pinprick, depending on the electrode and stimulation waveform properties. Depending on the characteristics of the stimulation and the afferent nerves, electrotactile stimulation may directly or indirectly induce neuromodulation.