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Neuromodulation is the use of external stimulation to intentionally change and regulate the electrochemical environment of the brain. Other contemporary forms of neurostimulation aimed at inducing neuromodulation are costly and invasive, with the potential for adverse effects. For example, deep brain stimulation, which uses implanted pacemaker-like electrical devices to decrease tremors in Parkinson’s, carries surgical risks.

Cranial Nerve Noninvasive Neuromodulation (CN-NINM) couples electrical stimulation with targeted functional therapy, including physical, occupational and cognitive exercises, based on the patient’s deficits. It is deployed through the tongue using the PoNS™ device to stimulate two major cranial nerves: the trigeminal (the nerve responsible for sensations in the face, biting and chewing) and the facial (the nerve responsible for motor control of most of the muscles of facial expression).